* Fluid Dynamics and Transport of Droplets and Sprays Second Edition* discusses the theoretical foundations of spray and droplet applications relevant to the technology for active control of sprays applied to new products and applications, improved product performance, cost reductions, and improved environmental outcomes. It also covers theory related to power and propulsion; materials processing and manufacturing technologies including droplet-based net form processing, coating, and painting; medication; pesticides and insecticides; and other consumer uses.

* Fluid Dynamics and Transport of Droplets and Sprays Second Edition* serves as both a graduate text and a reference for engineers and scientists exploring the theoretical and computational aspects of the fluid dynamics and transport of sprays and droplets. Attention is given to the behavior of individual droplets, including the effects of forced convection due to relative droplet-gas motion, Stefan convection due to the vaporization or condensation of the liquid, multicomponent liquids (and slurries), and internal circulation of the liquid. This second edition contains more information on droplet-droplet interactions, the use of the mass-flux potential, conserved scalar variables, spatial averaging and the formulation of the multi-continua equations, the confluence of spatial averaging for sprays and filtering for turbulence, direct numerical simulations and large-eddy simulations for turbulent sprays, and high-pressure vaporization processes. Two new chapters introduce liquid-film vaporization as an alternative to sprays for miniature applications and a review of liquid-stream distortion and break-up theory, which is relevant to spray formation.

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Nomenclature xiv

1 Introduction …………………………………. 1

1.1 Overview 1

1.2 Droplet-Size Determination 4

2 Isolated Spherically Symmetric Droplet Vaporization and Heating …. 8

2.1 Theory of Spherically Symmetric Droplet Vaporization and Heating 11

2.1.1 Gas-Phase Analysis 12

2.1.2 Liquid-Phase Analysis 19

2.1.3 Chemical Reaction 24

2.2 Radiative Heating of Droplets 26

3 Convective Droplet Vaporization, Heating, and Acceleration ……. 30

3.1 Convective Droplet Vaporization 31

3.1.1 Evaluation of Reynolds Number Magnitude 33

3.1.2 Physical Description 35

3.1.3 Approximate Analyses for Gas-Phase Boundary Layer 40

3.1.4 Approximate Analyses for Liquid-Phase Flows 47

3.1.5 Droplet Drag Coefficients 56

3.1.6 Results from Approximate Analyses 57

3.1.7 Exact Analyses for Gas-Phase and Liquid-Phase Flows 64

3.1.8 Free Convection 71

3.2 Low Reynolds Number Behavior 73

3.3 Droplet Vaporization in an Oscillating Gas 76

3.4 Individual Droplet Behavior in an Unsteady Flow 79

4 Multicomponent-Liquid Droplets ……………………. 90

4.1 Spherically Symmetric Diffusion 93

4.1.1 Continuous-Thermodynamics Models 97

4.2 Liquid-Phase Mass Diffusion with Convective Transport 98

4.2.1 Approximate Analyses 98

4.2.2 Exact Analyses 106

4.3 Metal-Slurry Droplet Vaporization and Combustion 107

4.3.1 Burning of a Fuel Droplet Containing a Single Metal Particle 108

4.3.2 Liquid Vaporization from Fine-Metal-Slurry Droplets 116

4.3.3 Metal-Particle Combustion with Oxide Condensation 129

4.4 Emulsified-Fuel-Droplet Vaporization and Burning 130

5 Droplet Behavior under Near-Critical, Transcritical, and

Supercritical Conditions …………………………. 134

5.1 High-Pressure Droplet Behavior in a Quiescent Environment 136

5.2 Convective Effects and Secondary Atomization 143

5.3 Molecular-Dynamics Simulation of Transcritical Droplet

Vaporization 147

6 Droplet Arrays and Groups ……………………….. 150

6.1 Heating and Vaporization of Droplet Arrays 153

6.2 Group Vaporization and Combustion 165

6.3 Generalized Theory for Droplet-Array Vaporization and Burning 168

6.3.1 Basic Formulation 168

6.3.2 Analysis of Vaporization Without Combustion 170

6.3.3 Combustion Analysis 173

6.3.4 Array Combustion with Nonunitary Lewis Number 179

6.3.5 Array Vaporization with Multicomponent Liquids 189

6.4 Droplet Collisions 192

6.4.1 Droplet–Droplet Collisions 193

6.4.2 Droplet–Wall Collisions 196

7 Spray Equations ……………………………… 199

7.1 Averaging Process for Two-Continua Formulations 200

7.1.1 Averaging of Dependent Variables 204

7.1.2 Averaging of Derivatives 207

7.1.3 Averaged Gas-Phase Equations 210

7.1.4 Averaged Vorticity and Entropy 214

7.1.5 Averaged Liquid-Phase Partial Differential Equations 216

7.1.6 Averaged Liquid-Phase Lagrangian Equations 218

7.1.7 The Microstructure 220

7.2 Two-Continua and Multicontinua Formulations 223

7.2.1 Continuity Equations 223

7.2.2 Momentum Conservation 226

7.2.3 Energy Conservation 228

7.2.4 Hyperbolic Character of Liquid-Phase Equations 230

7.2.5 Subgrid Models for Heat, Mass, and Momentum Exchange 232

7.3 Discrete-Particle Formulation 233

7.4 Probabilistic Formulation

8 Computational Issues …………………………… 237

8.1 Efficient Algorithms for Droplet Computations 237

8.2 Numerical Schemes and Optimization for Spray Computations 245

8.2.1 Two-Phase Laminar Axisymmetric Jet Flow 246

8.2.2 Axisymmetric Unsteady Sprays 255

8.2.3 Solution for Pressure 269

8.3 Point-Source Approximation in Spray Calculations 269

9 Spray Applications ……………………………. 285

9.1 Spherically Symmetric Spray Phenomena 287

9.2 Counterflow Spray Flows 289

9.3 One-Dimensional Planar Spray Ignition and Flame Propagation 296

9.4 Vaporization and Combustion of Droplet Streams 301

9.5 Flame Propagation Through Metal-Slurry Sprays 305

9.6 Liquid-Fueled Combustion Instability 308

9.7 Spray Behavior in Near-Critical and Supercritical Domains 310

9.8 Influence of Supercritical Droplet Behavior on Combustion

Instability 311

10 Spray Interactions with Turbulence and Vortical Structures …….. 314

10.1 Vortex–Spray Interactions 318

10.2 Time-Averaged Turbulence Models 321

10.3 Direct Numerical Simulation 324

10.4 Large-Eddy Simulations 329

10.4.1 Proper Two-Way Coupling for LES Closure 332

10.4.2 Gas-Phase Equations 333

10.4.3 Liquid-Phase Equations 335

10.4.4 Vortex–Droplet Interactions 336

11 Film Vaporization …………………………….. 340

11.1 Introduction 340

11.2 Miniature Film-Combustor Concept 342

11.3 Analysis of Liquid-Film Combustor 347

11.3.1 Assumptions and Governing Equations 348

11.3.2 Liquid-Phase Thermal Analysis 349

11.3.3 Fluid-Dynamics Analysis 350

11.3.4 Scalar Analysis 351

11.3.5 Results 354

11.4 Concluding Remarks 360

12 Stability of Liquid Streams ……………………….. 361

12.1 Introduction 361

12.2 Formulation of Governing Equations 364

12.3 Round Jet Analyses 366

12.3.1 Temporal Stability Analysis 367

12.3.2 Surface Energy

8.1 Efficient Algorithms for Droplet Computations 237

8.2 Numerical Schemes and Optimization for Spray Computations 245

8.2.1 Two-Phase Laminar Axisymmetric Jet Flow 246

8.2.2 Axisymmetric Unsteady Sprays 255

8.2.3 Solution for Pressure 269

8.3 Point-Source Approximation in Spray Calculations 269

9 Spray Applications ……………………………. 285

9.1 Spherically Symmetric Spray Phenomena 287

9.2 Counterflow Spray Flows 289

9.3 One-Dimensional Planar Spray Ignition and Flame Propagation 296

9.4 Vaporization and Combustion of Droplet Streams 301

9.5 Flame Propagation Through Metal-Slurry Sprays 305

9.6 Liquid-Fueled Combustion Instability 308

9.7 Spray Behavior in Near-Critical and Supercritical Domains 310

9.8 Influence of Supercritical Droplet Behavior on Combustion

Instability 311

10 Spray Interactions with Turbulence and Vortical Structures …….. 314

10.1 Vortex–Spray Interactions 318

10.2 Time-Averaged Turbulence Models 321

10.3 Direct Numerical Simulation 324

10.4 Large-Eddy Simulations 329

10.4.1 Proper Two-Way Coupling for LES Closure 332

10.4.2 Gas-Phase Equations 333

10.4.3 Liquid-Phase Equations 335

10.4.4 Vortex–Droplet Interactions 336

11 Film Vaporization …………………………….. 340

11.1 Introduction 340

11.2 Miniature Film-Combustor Concept 342

11.3 Analysis of Liquid-Film Combustor 347

11.3.1 Assumptions and Governing Equations 348

11.3.2 Liquid-Phase Thermal Analysis 349

11.3.3 Fluid-Dynamics Analysis 350

11.3.4 Scalar Analysis 351

11.3.5 Results 354

11.4 Concluding Remarks 360

12 Stability of Liquid Streams ……………………….. 361

12.1 Introduction 361

12.2 Formulation of Governing Equations 364

12.3 Round Jet Analyses 366

12.3.1 Temporal Stability Analysis 367

12.3.2 Surface Energy

12.3.3 Spatial Stability Analysis 370

12.3.4 Nonlinear Effects 371

12.3.5 Viscous Effects 376

12.3.6 Cavitation 376

12.4 Planar Sheet Analyses 381

12.4.1 Linear Theory 381

12.4.2 Fan Sheets 385

12.4.3 Nonlinear Theory 385

12.5 Annular Free Films 396

12.5.1 Linear Theory 397

12.5.2 Nonlinear Theory 399

12.5.3 Effect of Swirl 401

12.6 “Conical” Free Films 402

12.7 Concluding Remarks 406

Appendix A The Field Equations ……………………… 409

Appendix B Conserved Scalars ………………………. 415

Appendix C Droplet-Model Summary …….

12.3.4 Nonlinear Effects 371

12.3.5 Viscous Effects 376

12.3.6 Cavitation 376

12.4 Planar Sheet Analyses 381

12.4.1 Linear Theory 381

12.4.2 Fan Sheets 385

12.4.3 Nonlinear Theory 385

12.5 Annular Free Films 396

12.5.1 Linear Theory 397

12.5.2 Nonlinear Theory 399

12.5.3 Effect of Swirl 401

12.6 “Conical” Free Films 402

12.7 Concluding Remarks 406

Appendix A The Field Equations ……………………… 409

Appendix B Conserved Scalars ………………………. 415

Appendix C Droplet-Model Summary …….

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells convert chemical energy in hydrogen into electrical energy with water as the only by-product. Thus, PEM fuel cells hold great promise to reduce both pollutant emissions and dependency on fossil fuels, especially for transportation-passenger cars, utility vehicles, and buses-and small-scale stationary and portable power generators. But one of the greatest challenges to realizing the high efficiency and zero emissions potential of PEM fuel cells technology is heat and water management. * PEM Fuel Cells Thermal and Water Management Fundamentals* provides an introduction to the essential concepts for effective thermal and water management in PEM fuel cells and an assessment on the current status of fundamental research in this field.

* PEM Fuel Cells Thermal and Water Management Fundamentals* offers you:

• An overview of current energy and environmental challenges and their imperatives for the development of renewable energy resources, including discussion of the role of PEM fuel cells in addressing these issues;

• Reviews of basic principles pertaining to PEM fuel cells, including thermodynamics, electrochemical reaction kinetics, flow, heat and mass transfer; and

• Descriptions and discussions of water transport and management within a PEM fuel cell, including vapor- and liquid-phase water removal from the electrodes, the effects of two-phase flow, and solid water or ice dynamics and removal, particularly the specialized case of starting a PEM fuel cell at sub-freezing temperatures (cold start) and the various processes related to ice formation.

- ISBN-13: 9781606502457
- Publisher: Momentum Press, LLC
- Publication date: 6/15/2013
- Pages: 420

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This classic text on fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transport has been brought up to date in this second edition. The author has added a chapter on ‘Boiling and Condensation’ that expands and rounds out the book’s comprehensive coverage on transport phenomena. These new topics are particularly important to current research in renewable energy resources involving technologies such as windmills and solar panels. * An Introduction to Transport Phenomena In Materials Engineering 2nd edition* provides you and other materials science and engineering students and professionals with a clear yet thorough introduction to these important concepts. It balances the explanation of the fundamentals governing fluid flow and the transport of heat and mass with common applications of these fundamentals to specific systems existing in materials engineering. You will benefit from:

• The use of familiar examples such as air and water to introduce the influences of properties and geometry on fluid flow.

• An organization with sections dealing separately with fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transport. This sequential structure allows the development of heat transport concepts to employ analogies of heat flow with fluid flow and the development of mass transport concepts to employ analogies with heat transport.

• Ample high-quality graphs and figures throughout.

• Key points presented in chapter summaries.

• End of chapter exercises and solutions to selected problems.

• An all new and improved comprehensive index.

- ISBN-13: 9781606503553
- Publisher: Momentum Press, LLC
- Publication date: 8/31/2012
- Edition description: New Edition
- Edition number: 2
- Pages: 686

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List of Symbols xvii

1 Engineering Units and Pressure in Static Fluids 1

1.1 Origins of Engineering Units 1

1.2 Concept of Pressure 5

1.3 Measurement of Pressure 11

1.4 Pressure in Incompressible Fluids 15

1.5 Buoyancy 21

1.6 Summary 26

Problems 27

2 Momentum Transport and Laminar Flow of Newtonian Fluids 30

2.1 Introduction 30

2.2 Newton’s Lax of Viscosity 32

2.3 Conservation of Momentum in Steady-State Flow 36

2.4 Fluid Flow Between Two Flat Parallel Plates 40

2.5 Fluid Flow down in Inclined Plane 48

2.6 Fluid Flow in a Vertical Cylindrical Tube 53

2.7 Capillary Flowmeter 65

2.8 Fluid Flow in an Annulus 69

2.9 Mean Residence Time 76

2.10 Calculation of Viscosity from the Kinetic Theory of Gases 78

2.11 Viscosities of Liquid Metals 90

2.12 Summary 96

Problems 98

3 Equations of Continuity and Conservation of Momentum and Fluid Flow Past Submerged Objects 102

3.1 Introduction 102

3.2 Equation of Continuity 102

3.3 Conservation of Momentum 104

3.4 Navier-Stokes Equation for Fluids of Constant Density and Viscosity 108

3.5 Fluid Flow over a Horizontal Flat Plane 115

3.6 Approximate Integral Method in Obtaining Boundary Layer Thickness 117

3.7 Creeping Flow past a Sphere 125

3.8 Summary 132

Problems 133

4 Turbelent Flow 135

4.1 Introduction 135

4.2 Graphical Representation of Fluid Flow 139

4.3 Friction Factor and Turbulent Flow in Cylindrical Pipes 141

4.4 Flow Over a Flat Plate 153

4.5 Flow Past a Submerged Sphere 160

4.6 Flow Past a Submerged Cylinder 163

4.7 Flow Through Packed Beds 167

4.8 Fluidized Beds 175

4.9 Summary 180

Problems 181

5 Mechanical Energy Balance and Its Application to Fluid Flow 185

5.1 Introduction 185

5.2 Bernoulli’s Equation 185

5.3 Friction Loss, E_{f} 188

5.4 Influence of Bends, Fittings, and Changes in the Pipe Radius 190

5.5 Concept of Head 203

5.6 Fluid Flow in an Open Channel 205

5.7 Drainage from a Vessel 207

5.8 Emptying a Vessel by Discharge Through an Orifice 209

5.9 Drainage of a Vessel Using a Drainage Tube 213

5.10 Emptying a Vessel by Drainage Through a Drainage Tube 215

5.11 Bernoulli Equation for Flow of Compressible Fluids 219

5.12 Pilot Tube 221

5.13 Orifice Plate 225

5.14 Summary 228

Problems 229

6 Transport of Heat by Conduction 235

6.1 Introduction 235

6.2 Fourier’s Law and Newton’s Law 236

6.3 Conduction 238

6.4 Conduction in Heat Sources 256

6.5 Thermal Conductivity and the Kinetic Theory of Gases 267

6.6 General Heat Conduction Equation 274

6.7 Conduction of Heat at Steady State in Two Dimensions 278

6.8 Summary 289

Problems 290

7 Transport of Heat by Convection 295

7.1 Introduction 295

7.2 Heat Transfer by Forced Convection from a Horizontal Flat Plate at a Uniform Constant Temperature 295

7.3 Heat Transfer from a Horizontal Flat Plate with Uniform Heat Flux Along the Plate 315

7.4 Heat Transfer During Fluid Flow in Cylindrical Pipes 317

7.5 Energy Balance in Heat Transfer by Convection Between a Cylindrical Pipe and a Flowing Fluid 322

7.6 Heat Transfer by Forced Convection from Horizontal Cylinders 331

7.7 Heat Transfer by Forced Convection from a Sphere 334

7.8 General Energy Equation 335

7.9 Heat Transfer from a Vertical Plate by Natural Convection 346

7.10 Heat Transfer from Cylinders by Natural Convection 358

7.11 Summary 360

Problems 361

8 Transient Heat Flow 365

8.1 Introduction 365

8.2 Lumped Capacitance Method; Newtonian Cooling 365

8.3 Non-Newtonian Cooling in Semi-infinite Systems 373

8.4 Non-Newtonian Cooling in a One-Dimensional Finite Systems 382

8.5 Non-Newtonian Cooling in a Two-Dimensional Finite Systems 394

8.6 Solidification of Metal Castings 401

8.7 Summary 416

Problems 416

9 Heat Transport by Thermal Radiation 421

9.1 Introduction 421

9.2 Intensity and Emissive Power 423

9.3 Blackbody Radiation 427

9.4 Emissivity 431

9.5 Absorptivity, Reflectivity, and Transmissivity 436

9.6 Kirchhoff’s Law and the Hohlraum 437

9.7 Radiation Exchange Between Surfaces 439

9.8 Radiation Exchange Between Blackbodies 450

9.9 Radiation Exchange Between Diffuse-Gray Surfaces 453

9.10 Electric Analogy 458

9.11 Radiation Shields 460

9.12 Reradiating Surface 463

9.13 Heat Transfer from a Surface by Convection and Radiation 466

9.14 Summary 471

Problems 472

10 Mass Transport by Diffusion in the Solid State 476

10.1 Introduction 476

10.2 Atomic Diffusion as a Random-Walk Process 476

10.3 Fick’s First Law of Diffusion 480

10.4 One-Dimensional Non-Steady-State Diffusion in a Solid; Fick’s Second Law of Diffusion 483

10.5 Infinite Diffusion Couple 489

10.6 One-Dimensional Diffusion in a Semi-infinite System Involving a Change of Phase 491

10.7 Steady-State Diffusion Through a Composite Wall 498

10.8 Diffusion in Substitutional Solid Solutions 502

10.9 Darken’s Analysis 502

10.10 Self-Diffusion Coefficient 506

10.11 Measurement of the Interdifussion Coefficient: Boltzmann-Matano Analysis 510

10.12 Influence of Temperature on the Diffusion Coefficient 514

10.13 Summary 518

Problems 520

11 Mass Transport in Fluids 522

11.1 Introduction 522

11.2 Mass and Molar Fluxes in a Fluid 522

11.3 Equations of Diffusion with Convection in a Binary Mixture A-B 524

11.4 One-Dimensional Transport in a Binary Mixture of Ideal Gases 527

11.5 Equimolar Counterdiffusion 528

11.6 One-Dimensional Steady-State Diffusion of Gas A Through Stationary Gas B 529

11.7 Sublimation of a Sphere into a Stationary Gas 536

11.8 Film Model 538

11.9 Catalytic Surface Reactions 539

11.10 Diffusion and Chemical Reaction in Stagnant Film 542

11.11 Mass Transfer at Large Fluxes and Large Concentrations 547

11.12 Influence of Mass Transport on Heat Transfer in Stagnant Film 550

11.13 Diffusion into a Falling Film of Liquid 553

11.14 Diffusion and the Kinetic Theory of Gases 560

11.15 Mass Transfer Coefficient and Concentration Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate 569

11.16 Approximate Integral Method 573

11.17 Mass Transfer by Free Convection 583

11.18 Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer: Evaporate Cooling 586

11.19 Chemical Reaction and Mass Transfer: Mixed Control 589

11.20 Dissolution of Pure Metal A in Liquid B: Mixed Control 593

11.21 Summary 596

Problems 598

12 Condensation and Boiling 601

12.1 Introduction 601

12.2 Dimensionless Parameters in Boiling and Condensation 602

12.3 Modes of Boiling 603

12.4 Pool Boiling Correlations 606

12.5 Summary 612

Problems 612

Appendix A Elementary and Derived SI Units and Symbols 615

Appendix B Prefixes and Symbols for Multiples and Submultiples of SI Units 617

Appendix C Conversion from British and U.S. Units to SI Units 618

Appendix D Properties of Solid Metals 620

Appendix E Properties of Nonmetallic Solids 623

Appendix F Properties of Gases at 1 Atm Pressure 627

Appendix G Properties of Saturated Liquids 635

Appendix H Properties of Liquid Metals 639

Recommended Readings 642

Answers to Problems 643

Industrial control systems nowadays are highly automated and intergrated with industrial IT systems. And like IT systems, the underlying controls software systems often have to be transferred (migrated) to new systems for upgrades, additions, or new releases. * Control System Migrations A Practical Project Management Handbook* by a noted expert on such controls systems migrations will alert the reader to the common protocols needed and the frequent pitfalls and problems when doing such migrations. It will take a particular focus on project justification and proper execution and monitoring–all with an eye toward the overall industrial bottom line.

Roessler hits the key points for control systems migrations in his chapters:

1. Project Justification

2. FEL

3. Bid Specification/ Vendor Selection

4. Scope, Schedule, Budget

5. Project Staffing

6. Training

7. Progress Monitoring, Change Orders and Reporting

8. High-Risk Areas

9. Cutovers

10.Project Closeout and Lifecycle Management

- ISBN-13: 9781606504437
- Publisher: Momentum Press, LLC
- Publication date: 8/29/2013
- Pages: 220

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Momentum Press is proud to bring to you* Chemical Sensors Simulation and Modeling Volume 5 Electrochemical Sensors*, edited by Ghenadii Korotcenkov. This is the fifth of a five-volume comprehensive reference work that provides computer simulation and modeling techniques in various fields of chemical sensing. The important applications for chemical sensing include such topics as bulk and surface diffusion, adsorption, surface reactions, sintering, conductivity, mass transport, and interphase interactions.

In this fifth volume, you will find background and guidance on:

• Modeling and simulation of electrochemical processes in both solid and liquid electrolytes, including charge separation and transport (gas diffusion, ion diffusion) in membranes, proton- electron transfers, electrode reactions, etc.

• Various models used to describe electrochemical sensors such as potentiometric, amperometric, conductometric, impedimetric, and ionsensitive FET sensors Chemical sensors are integral to the automation of myriad industrial processes and everyday monitoring of such activities as public safety, engine performance, medical therapeutics, and many more.

This five-volume reference work serves as the perfect complement to Momentum Press’s six-volume reference work, Chemical Sensors: Fundamentals of Sensing Materials and Chemical Sensors: Comprehensive Sensor Technologies, which present detailed information related to materials, technologies, construction, and application of various devices for chemical sensing.

**Chemical Sensors Simulation and Modeling Volume 5 Electrochemical Sensors**

- ISBN-13: 9781606505960
- Publisher: Momentum Press, LLC
- Publication date: 6/26/2013
- Pages: 432

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This resource offers a primer on simple design methods for multiphase reactors in the chemical process industries, particularly the fine chemicals industry. It provides the process design engineer with simple yet theoretically sound procedures. Different types of multiphase reactors are dealt with on an individual basis. * Design of Multiphase Reactors* focuses on the problem of predicting mass transfer rates in these reactors. It also contains finally worked examples that clearly illustrate how a highly complex MPR like the Stirred Tank Reactor (STR) can be designed using simple correlations which need only a scientific calculator.

- ISBN-13: 9781118807569
- Publisher: Wiley
- Publication date: 12/22/2014
- Edition number: 1
- Pages: 536

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Foreword xv

Preface xvii

**1 Evolution of the Chemical Industry and Importance of Multiphase Reactors 1**

1.1 Evolution of Chemical Process Industries 1

1.2 Sustainable and Green Processing Requirements in the Modern Chemical Industry 4

1.3 Catalysis 9

1.3.1 Heterogeneous Catalysis 11

1.3.2 Homogeneous Catalysis 16

1.4 Parameters Concerning Catalyst Effectiveness in Industrial Operations 17

1.4.1 Chemoselectivity 19

1.4.2 Regioselectivity 19

1.4.3 Stereoselectivity 19

1.5 Importance of Advanced Instrumental Techniques in Understanding Catalytic Phenomena 20

1.6 Role of Nanotechnology in Catalysis 21

1.7 Click Chemistry 21

1.8 Role of Multiphase Reactors 22

References 23

**2 Multiphase Reactors: The Design and Scale-Up Problem 30**

2.1 Introduction 30

2.2 The Scale-Up Conundrum 31

2.3 Intrinsic Kinetics: Invariance with Respect to Type/Size of Multiphase Reactor 34

2.4 Transport Processes: Dependence on Type/Size of Multiphase Reactor 34

2.5 Prediction of the Rate-Controlling Step in the Industrial Reactor 35

2.6 Laboratory Methods for Discerning Intrinsic Kinetics of Multiphase Reactions 35

2.6.1 Two-Phase (Gas–Liquid) Reaction 35

2.6.2 Three-Phase (Gas–Liquid–Solid) Reactions with Solid Phase Acting as Catalyst 41

Nomenclature 44

References 45

**3 Multiphase Reactors: Types and Criteria for Selection for a Given Application 47**

3.1 Introduction to Simplified Design Philosophy 47

3.2 Classification of Multiphase Reactors 48

3.3 Criteria for Reactor Selection 48

3.3.1 Kinetics vis-à-vis Mass Transfer Rates 49

3.3.2 Flow Patterns of the Various Phases 50

3.3.3 Ability to Remove/Add Heat 50

3.3.4 Ability to Handle Solids 53

3.3.5 Operating Conditions (Pressure/Temperature) 54

3.3.6 Material of Construction 54

3.4 Some Examples of Large-Scale Applications of Multiphase Reactors 55

3.4.1 Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis 55

3.4.2 Oxidation of p-Xylene to Purified Terephthalic Acid for Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) 67

Nomenclature 80

References 81

**4 Turbulence: Fundamentals and Relevance to Multiphase Reactors 87**

4.1 Introduction 87

4.2 Fluid Turbulence 88

4.2.1 Homogeneous Turbulence 89

4.2.2 Isotropic Turbulence 90

4.2.3 Eddy Size Distribution and Effect of Eddy Size on Transport Rates 90

Nomenclature 91

References 91

**5 Principles of Similarity and Their Application for Scale-Up of Multiphase Reactors 93**

5.1 Introduction to Principles of Similarity and a Historic Perspective 93

5.2 States of Similarity of Relevance to Chemical Process Equipments 94

5.2.1 Geometric Similarity 95

5.2.2 Mechanical Similarity 96

5.2.3 Thermal Similarity 100

5.2.4 Chemical Similarity 100

5.2.5 Physiological Similarity 101

5.2.6 Similarity in Electrochemical Systems 101

5.2.7 Similarity in Photocatalytic Reactors 102

Nomenclature 102

References 104

**6 Mass Transfer in Multiphase Reactors: Some Theoretical Considerations 106**

6.1 Introduction 106

6.2 Purely Empirical Correlations Using Operating Parameters and Physical Properties 107

6.3 Correlations Based on Mechanical Similarity 108

6.3.1 Correlations Based on Dynamic Similarity 108

6.4 Correlations Based on Hydrodynamic/Turbulence Regime Similarity 116

6.4.1 The Slip Velocity Approach 116

6.4.2 Approach Based on Analogy between Momentum and Mass Transfer 132

Nomenclature 135

References 138

**7A Stirred Tank Reactors for Chemical Reactions 143**

7A.1 Introduction 143

7A.1.1 The Standard Stirred Tank 143

7A.2 Power Requirements of Different Impellers 147

7A.3 Hydrodynamic Regimes in Two-Phase (Gas–Liquid) Stirred Tank Reactors 148

7A.3.1 Constant Speed of Agitation 150

7A.3.2 Constant Gas Flow Rate 150

7A.4 Hydrodynamic Regimes in Three-Phase (Gas–Liquid–Solid) Stirred Tank Reactors 153

7A.5 Gas Holdup in Stirred Tank Reactors 155

7A.5.1 Some Basic Considerations 155

7A.5.2 Correlations for Gas Holdup 164

7A.5.3 Relative Gas Dispersion (N/NCD) as a Correlating Parameter for Gas Holdup 165

7A.5.4 Correlations for NCD 166

7A.6 Gas–Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient in Stirred Tank Reactor 166

7A.7 Solid–Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient in Stirred Tank Reactor 175

7A.7.1 Solid Suspension in Stirred Tank Reactor 175

7A.7.2 Correlations for Solid–Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient 191

7A.8 Design of Stirred Tank Reactors with Internal Cooling Coils 194

7A.8.1 Gas Holdup 194

7A.8.2 Critical Speed for Complete Dispersion of Gas 194

7A.8.3 Critical Speed for Solid Suspension 195

7A.8.4 Gas–Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient 195

7A.8.5 Solid–Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient 196

7A.9 Stirred Tank Reactor with Internal Draft Tube 196

7A.10 Worked Example: Design of Stirred Reactor for Hydrogenation of Aniline to Cyclohexylamine (Capacity: 25000 Metric Tonnes per Year) 198

7A.10.1 Elucidation of the Output 201

Nomenclature 203

References 206

**7B Stirred Tank Reactors for Cell Culture Technology 216**

7B.1 Introduction 216

7B.2 The Biopharmaceutical Process and Cell Culture Engineering 224

7B.2.1 Animal Cell Culture vis-à-vis Microbial Culture 224

7B.2.2 Major Improvements Related to Processing of Animal Cell Culture 225

7B.2.3 Reactors for Large-Scale Animal Cell Culture 226

7B.3 Types of Bioreactors 229

7B.3.1 Major Components of Stirred Bioreactor 230

7B.4 Modes of Operation of Bioreactors 230

7B.4.1 Batch Mode 231

7B.4.2 Fed-Batch or Semibatch Mode 232

7B.4.3 Continuous Mode (Perfusion) 233

7B.5 Cell Retention Techniques for Use in Continuous Operation in Suspended Cell Perfusion Processes 233

7B.5.1 Cell Retention Based on Size: Different Types of Filtration Techniques 234

7B.5.2 Separation Based on Body Force Difference 242

7B.5.3 Acoustic Devices 246

7B.6 Types of Cells and Modes of Growth 253

7B.7 Growth Phases of Cells 254

7B.8 The Cell and Its Viability in Bioreactors 256

7B.8.1 Shear Sensitivity 256

7B.9 Hydrodynamics 264

7B.9.1 Mixing in Bioreactors 264

7B.10 Gas Dispersion 273

7B.10.1 Importance of Gas Dispersion 273

7B.10.2 Effect of Dissolved Carbon Dioxide on Bioprocess Rate 275

7B.10.3 Factors That Affect Gas Dispersion 277

7B.10.4 Estimation of NCD 278

7B.11 Solid Suspension 279

7B.11.1 Two-Phase (Solid–Liquid) Systems 279

7B.11.2 Three-Phase (Gas–Liquid–Solid) Systems 280

7B.12 Mass Transfer 281

7B.12.1 Fractional Gas Holdup (εG) 281

7B.12.2 Gas–Liquid Mass Transfer 281

7B.12.3 Liquid–Cell Mass Transfer 283

7B.13 Foaming in Cell Culture Systems: Effects on Hydrodynamics and Mass Transfer 285

7B.14 Heat Transfer in Stirred Bioreactors 287

7B.15 Worked Cell Culture Reactor Design Example 291

7B.15.1 Conventional Batch Stirred Reactor with Air Sparging for Microcarrier-Supported Cells: A Simple Design Methodology for Discerning the Rate-Controlling Step 291

7B.15.2 Reactor Using Membrane-Based Oxygen Transfer 294

7B.15.3 Heat Transfer Area Required 294

7B.16 Special Aspects of Stirred Bioreactor Design 295

7B.16.1 The Reactor Vessel 296

7B.16.2 Sterilizing System 296

7B.16.3 Measurement Probes 296

7B.16.4 Agitator Seals 297

7B.16.5 Gasket and O-Ring Materials 297

7B.16.6 Vent Gas System 297

7B.16.7 Cell Retention Systems in Perfusion Culture 297

7B.17 Concluding Remarks 298

Nomenclature 298

References 301

**8 Venturi Loop Reactor 317**

8.1 Introduction 317

8.2 Application Areas for the Venturi Loop Reactor 317

8.2.1 Two Phase (Gas–Liquid Reactions) 318

8.2.2 Three-Phase (Gas–Liquid–Solid-Catalyzed) Reactions 319

8.3 Advantages of the Venturi Loop Reactor: A Detailed Comparison 323

8.3.1 Relatively Very High Mass Transfer Rates 323

8.3.2 Lower Reaction Pressure 324

8.3.3 Well-Mixed Liquid Phase 325

8.3.4 Efficient Temperature Control 325

8.3.5 Efficient Solid Suspension and Well-Mixed Solid (Catalyst) Phase 325

8.3.6 Suitability for Dead-End System 326

8.3.7 Excellent Draining/Cleaning Features 326

8.3.8 Easy Scale-Up 326

8.4 The Ejector-Based Liquid Jet Venturi Loop Reactor 326

8.4.1 Operational Features 328

8.4.2 Components and Their Functions 328

8.5 The Ejector–Diffuser System and Its Components 332

8.6 Hydrodynamics of Liquid Jet Ejector 333

8.6.1 Flow Regimes 336

8.6.2 Prediction of Rate of Gas Induction 341

8.7 Design of Venturi Loop Reactor 358

8.7.1 Mass Ratio of Secondary to Primary Fluid 358

8.7.2 Gas Holdup 367

8.7.3 Gas–Liquid Mass Transfer: Mass Transfer Coefficient (kLa) and Effective Interfacial Area (a) 376

8.8 Solid Suspension in Venturi Loop Reactor 385

8.9 Solid–Liquid Mass Transfer 388

8.10 Holding Vessel Size 389

8.11 Recommended Overall Configuration 389

8.12 Scale-Up of Venturi Loop Reactor 390

8.13 Worked Examples for Design of Venturi Loop Reactor: Hydrogenation of Aniline to Cyclohexylamine 390

Nomenclature 395

References 399

**9 Gas-Inducing Reactors 407**

9.1 Introduction and Application Areas of Gas-Inducing Reactors 407

9.1.1 Advantages 408

9.1.2 Drawbacks 408

9.2 Mechanism of Gas Induction 409

9.3 Classification of Gas-Inducing Impellers 410

9.3.1 1–1 Type Impellers 410

9.3.2 1–2 and 2–2 Type Impellers 416

9.4 Multiple-Impeller Systems Using 2–2 Type Impeller for Gas Induction 429

9.4.1 Critical Speed for Gas Induction 431

9.4.2 Rate of Gas Induction (QG) 431

9.4.3 Critical Speed for Gas Dispersion 434

9.4.4 Critical Speed for Solid Suspension 436

9.4.5 Operation of Gas-Inducing Reactor with Gas Sparging 439

9.4.6 Solid–Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient (KSL) 440

9.5 Worked Example: Design of Gas-Inducing System with Multiple Impellers for Hydrogenation of Aniline to Cyclohexylamine (Capacity:

25000 Metric Tonnes per Year) 441

9.5.1 Geometrical Features of the Reactor/Impeller (Dimensions and Geometric Configuration as per Section 7A.10 and Figure 9.9

Respectively) 441

9.5.2 Basic Parameters 442

Nomenclature 443

References 446

**10 Two- and Three-Phase Sparged Reactors 451**

10.1 Introduction 451

10.2 Hydrodynamic Regimes in TPSR 452

10.2.1 Slug Flow Regime 452

10.2.2 Homogeneous Bubble Flow Regime 452

10.2.3 Heterogeneous Churn-Turbulent Regime 454

10.2.4 Transition from Homogeneous to Heterogeneous Regimes 455

10.3 Gas Holdup 457

10.3.1 Effect of Sparger 458

10.3.2 Effect of Liquid Properties 458

10.3.3 Effect of Operating Pressure 460

10.3.4 Effect of Presence of Solids 461

10.4 Solid–Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient (KSL) 466

10.4.1 Effect of Gas Velocity on KSL 466

10.4.2 Effect of Particle Diameter dP on KSL 467

10.4.3 Effect of Column Diameter on KSL 467

10.4.4 Correlation for KSL 468

10.5 Gas–Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient (kLa) 468

10.6 Axial Dispersion 472

10.7 Comments on Scale-Up of TPSR/Bubble Columns 474

10.8 Reactor Design Example for Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis Reactor 474

10.8.1 Introduction 474

10.8.2 Physicochemical Properties 475

10.8.3 Basis for Reactor Design Material Balance and Reactor Dimensions 476

10.8.4 Calculation of Mass Transfer Parameters 476

10.8.5 Estimation of Rates of Individual Steps and Determination of the Rate Controlling Step 478

10.8.6 Sparger Design 480

10.9 TPSR (Loop) with Internal Draft Tube (BCDT) 481

10.9.1 Introduction 481

10.9.2 Hydrodynamic Regimes in TPSRs with Internal Draft Tube 481

10.9.3 Gas–Liquid Mass Transfer 482

10.9.4 Solid Suspension 488

10.9.5 Solid–Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient (KSL) 490

10.9.6 Correlation for KSL 490

10.9.7 Application of BCDT to Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis 491

10.9.8 Application of BCDT to Oxidation of p-Xylene to Terephthalic Acid 492

Nomenclature 493

References 496

This new volume of the annual review â€œAdvances in Transport Phenomenaâ€ series contains three in-depth review articles on the microfluidic fabrication of vesicles, the dielectrophoresis field-flow fractionation for continuous-flow separation of particles and cells in microfluidic devices, and the thermodynamic analysis and optimization of heat exchangers, respectively.

ISBN-13: 9783319017921

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Publication date: 11/30/2013

Series:

Advances in Transport Phenomena Series ,

#3

Edition description: 2014

Pages: 180

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Publication date: 11/30/2013

Series:

Advances in Transport Phenomena Series ,

#3

Edition description: 2014

Pages: 180

Alec Groysman

**Descriptions**

This book treats corrosion as it occurs and affects processes in real-world situations, and thus points the way to practical solutions. Topics described include the conditions in which petroleum products are corrosive to metals; corrosion mechanisms of petroleum products; which parts of storage tanks containing crude oils and petroleum products undergo corrosion; dependence of corrosion in tanks on type of petroleum products; aggressiveness of petroleum products to polymeric material; how microorganisms take part in corrosion of tanks and pipes containing petroleum products; which corrosion monitoring methods are used in systems for storage and transportation of petroleum products; what corrosion control measures should be chosen; how to choose coatings for inner and outer surfaces of tanks containing petroleum products; and how different additives (oxygenates, aromatic solvents) to petroleum products and biofuels influence metallic and polymeric materials.

The book is of interest to corrosion engineers, materials engineers, oil and gas engineers, petroleum engineers, chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, failure analysts, scientists, and students, designers of tanks, pipelines and other systems for storage and transportation fuels, technicians.

The book is of interest to corrosion engineers, materials engineers, oil and gas engineers, petroleum engineers, chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, failure analysts, scientists, and students, designers of tanks, pipelines and other systems for storage and transportation fuels, technicians.

The book is of interest to corrosion engineers, materials engineers, oil and gas engineers, petroleum engineers, chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, failure analysts, scientists, and students, designers of tanks, pipelines and other systems for storage and transportation fuels, technicians.

**Details**

**Hardcover:**297 pages**Publisher:**Springer; 2014 edition (February 18, 2014)**Language:**English**ISBN-10:**940077883X**ISBN-13:**978-9400778832

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Christie J. Geankoplis

**Description**

Transport Processes and Unit Operations 3rd Edition

This up-to-date revision provides a modern, unified treatment of basic transport processes and a comprehensive treatment of unit operations.

This new third edition provides a modern, unified treatment of the basic transport processes of momentum, heat, and mass transfer, as well as a broad treatment of the unit operations of chemical engineering. Coverage includes the latest membrane separation processes; discussion of bioprocesses; comprehensive treatment of the transport processes of momentum, heat, and mass transfer; adsorption processes; and more. A useful, up-to-date reference for practicing chemical engineers, agricultural engineers, food scientists, environmental engineers, biochemical engineers, and others who work in the process industries.

**Reviews**

This was a required text in my Food Engineering Program, and now I use it as a reference source when I need to get immediate information and solution guides to problems while I am out consulting with clients. It gives just the right amount of data needed, and there are adequate references. I take it everywhere because I find this book full of practical examples which make it invaluable tool.

Geankoplis was listed as a reference text for our transport operations class, McCabe being the primary text for the course. I’m glad that I spent the extra money to acquire the text Transport Processes and Unit Operations because it was far better at teaching problem solving methods, especially other methods rather than just McCabe Thiele diagrams. It was a more comphrehensive treatment of the subject.

This is like three books in one. I used McCabe for Unit Ops, Treybal for Mass transfer and BSL for Transport Phenomena. This book is a good replacement for all three.

Good worked pout examples and good discussion.

Highly Recommended

Very good, as described product. Very useful, helpful tool for multiple chemical engineering courses. Have use more than a couple times as a quick reference.

One of the best books I used in graduation and I found a miracle to buy it for such a low price. It didn’t come with the CD but the book was nearly new. I couldn’t be happier.

It covers most of the Unit Operations used in undergraduate. Also the chapters structure is easy to follow, so as the technical part. The examples and proposed problems are worth a look, too. I really recommend this for any chemical engineering student.

**Details**

**Hardcover:**921 pages**Publisher:**Prentice Hall PTR; 3 Sub edition (March 5, 1993)**Language:**English**ISBN-10:**0139304398**ISBN-13:**978-0139304392

Per Olsson

**Description**

This short primer provides a concise and tutorial-style introduction to transport phenomena in Newtonian fluids , in particular the transport of mass, energy and momentum.

The reader will find detailed derivations of the transport equations for these phenomena, as well as selected analytical solutions to the transport equations in some simple geometries. After a brief introduction to the basic mathematics used in the text, Chapter 2, which deals with momentum transport, presents a derivation of the Navier-Stokes-Duhem equation describing the basic flow in a Newtonian fluid. Also provided at this stage are the derivations of the Bernoulli equation, the pressure equation and the wave equation for sound waves. The boundary layer, turbulent flow and flow separation are briefly reviewed.

Chapter 3, which addresses energy transport caused by thermal conduction and convection, examines a derivation of the heat transport equation. Finally, Chapter 4, which focuses on mass transport caused by diffusion and convection, discusses a derivation of the mass transport equation.

**Reviews**

**Details**

- ISBN-13: 9783319013084
- Publisher: Springer International Publishing
- Publication date: 9/30/2013
- Series: SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology / SpringerBriefs in Continuum Mechanics Series
- Edition description: 2014
- Pages: 94
- Sales rank: 731.396

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