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Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization

Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization

By Rehab O. Abdel Rahman, Ravil Z. Rakhimov, Nailia R. Rakhimova, Michael I. Ojovan 

Approaches and current practices of use of cementitious materials for nuclear waste immobilization are summarized in Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization, with a focus on the most important aspects of cements as nuclear wasteforms. The topics covered include an introductory background on nuclear waste management, description of Portland cements and cements with mineral and chemical admixtures, alternative cementitious binders, radioactive waste cementation and equipment used, wasteform durability requirements and testing, and performance assessment. Hydration of Portland cement as well as interaction of Portland cements with water and soil are described in detail. Also covered are mineral and chemical admixtures, chemical admixtures to control the structure and properties of Portland cements such as accelerators and retarders, plasticizers, and super-plasticizers, air-entraining agents, water-retaining agents and water permeability reducing admixtures, biocidal admixtures, mineral admixtures in the control of the composition, structure and properties of cements and mineral admixtures from natural rocks and minerals. Alternative binders are considered including calcium aluminate cements, calcium sulphoaluminate cements, phosphate cements such as magnesium and calcium phosphate cements, as well as alkali-activated cements. Cement properties relevant to waste immobilization are analysed including characterization and testing. Radioactive waste streams suitable for cementation are described including both aqueous and organic waste, bulk and fragmented (dispersed) solid wastes as well as the description of cement-based wasteform optimization. Waste cementation technology and equipment are considered including methods of liquid and dispersed solid waste cementation and methods for cementation of bulk solid waste. Quality control of technological processes and materials obtained is discussed. Cementitious wasteform durability requirements are examined along with the role of material performance and expected performance of cements. Wasteform leaching parameters and testing protocols such as IAEA/ISO 6961-82, ASTM C1220-98 (MCC-1), ANS- 2009 (ANS/ANSI 16.1) and ASTM C1662-10 are given. Long-term field tests of cementitious materials are described as well as the effects of radiation, biological activities and role of filling materials. Performance assessment gives a brief overview of historical disposal practice, disposal facility design, modelling approaches, and safety case developed for disposal facilities. Overall the book provides the reader with both a scientific and technological basis of using cementitious materials for immobilization of nuclear waste.

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Contents

Introduction 1
1.1 Background of Nuclear Waste Problem 1
1.2 Nuclear Industry Facilities 2
1.2.1 NFC Facilities 2
1.2.2 Radioisotope Production and Application 8
1.3 Nuclear Waste Sources and Classification 10
1.4 Nuclear Waste Management 13
1.4.1 Development of Policy Principles, Strategy
and Legal Framework 14
1.4.2 Technical Options for a Waste Management System 16
1.4.3 Technical Factors that Affect Technology Selection 22
1.5 Wasteform Materials 23
References 25
2 Cements: Portland Cement 27
2.1 Cements 27
2.2 Portland Cement: Manufacture, Mineral Composition,
Properties 28
2.3 Phase and Mineral Composition of Ordinary Portland
Cement 30
2.4 Properties of Portland Cement 31
2.5 Hydration of Portland Cement 32
2.5.1 Hydration and Hydraulic Activity of Clinker Phases
and Portland Cement 32
2.5.2 Process Chemistry, Products and Hydration Stages 35
2.5.3 Microstructure, Phases and Properties of Fresh
and Hardened Cement Paste 40
2.6 Interaction of Portland Cements with Water and Soil 44
2.6.1 Ground Waters and Their Interaction with Cement
Hydration Products 44
2.6.2 Soil and Its Interaction with Cement
Hydration Products 48
References 51
Contentsviii Contents
3 Portland Cements with Mineral and Chemical Admixtures 53
3.1 Chemical Admixtures to Control the Structure and Properties
of Portland Cements 53
3.1.1 Accelerators 55
3.1.2 Retarders 56
3.1.3 Plasticizers, Super-Plasticizers and Hyperplasticizers 57
3.2 Mineral Admixtures in the Control of the Composition, Structure
and Properties of Cements 61
3.2.1 Classification of Mineral Admixtures for Cements 62
3.2.2 Portland Cements with Mineral Admixtures from Natural Rocks
and Minerals 66
3.2.3 Portland Cements with Mineral Admixtures from Wastes of Various
Industries 67
3.2.4 Portland Cements with Synthetic Mineral Admixtures 69
3.2.5 Portland Cements with Hybrid Mineral and Organic-Mineral
Admixtures 70
References 74
4 Alternative Binders 79
4.1 Calcium Aluminate Cements 80
4.1.1 Chemical and Mineralogical Composition of CACs 80
4.1.2 Hardening of CACs 81
4.1.3 Properties of CACs 82
4.2 Calcium Sulphoaluminate Cements 83
4.2.1 Chemical and Mineralogical Composition of CSACs 84
4.2.2 Hardening of CSACs 84
4.2.3 Properties of CSACs 86
4.3 Phosphate Cements 87
4.3.1 Properties of Phosphate Cements 89
4.3.2 Magnesium Phosphate Cements 90
4.3.3 Calcium Phosphate Cements 90
4.4 Alkali-Activated Cements 92
References 99
5 Cement Properties, Characterization and Testing 105
5.1 Water/Cement Ratio, Water Requirement, Workability
and Water Retention 105
5.2 Setting Time 109
5.3 Specific Surface Area and Particle Size Distribution 111
5.4 Heat Evolution 113
5.5 Strength 114
5.6 Freeze–Thaw Resistance 119
5.7 Microstructure and Analysis 121
References 124Contents ix
6 Radioactive Waste Cementation 127
6.1 Radioactive Waste Streams for Cementation 127
6.2 Liquid Waste 130
6.2.1 Organic Liquid Waste for Cementation 130
6.2.2 Aqueous Waste for Cementation 132
6.3 Bulk Solid Radioactive Wastes 138
6.3.1 Bulk Metallic Wastes 138
6.3.2 Bulk Concrete Wastes 140
6.3.3 Bulk Graphite 142
6.3.4 Bulk Hazardous Wastes 143
6.4 Fragmented (Dispersed) Solid Wastes 143
6.4.1 Compactable, Combustible Wastes 144
6.4.2 Non-compactable, Non-combustible Wastes 145
6.5 Additives for Radioactive Waste Cementation 147
6.5.1 Lime 148
6.5.2 Blast Furnace Slag 149
6.5.3 Clay Minerals 149
6.6 Cement-Based Composite Materials 152
6.7 Cement-Based Wasteform Optimization 153
References 154
7 Waste Cementation Technology 159
7.1 Methods of Liquid Waste Cementation 159
7.1.1 Regular Mixer Technology 161
7.1.2 Disposable Stirrer Technology 163
7.1.3 Slant Mixer Technology 167
7.1.4 High Energy and High Shear Mixer Technology 168
7.1.5 In-line Mixing Technology 168
7.2 Methods for Cementation of Fragmented (Dispersed)
Solid Waste 168
7.3 Methods for Cementation of Bulk Solid Waste 173
7.4 Quality Control of Technological Processes
and Materials Obtained 174
References 175
8 Cementitious Wasteform Durability 177
8.1 Wasteform Durability Requirements 177
8.2 Role of Material Performance 181
8.3 Expected Performance of Cements 182
8.4 Wasteform Leaching Parameters 185
8.5 Laboratory Tests 186
8.6 Long-Term Field Tests 188
8.6.1 Mound Type Repository Field Tests 189
8.6.2 Vault Repository Field Tests 194x Contents
8.7 Effect of Radiation 195
8.8 Biological Effects 196
8.9 Role of Filling Materials 197
References 198
9 Performance Assessment 201
9.1 Historical Disposal Practice 202
9.2 Disposal Facility Design 204
9.2.1 Shallow Land Disposal Options 206
9.2.2 Underground Disposal Option 208
9.3 Modelling Approaches 210
9.4 Performance Assessment 212
9.5 Safety Case 216
References 217
10 Future Trends and Concluding Remarks 221
10.1 Role of Cementitious Materials 221
10.2 Novel Cementitious Materials 222
10.3 Concluding Remarks

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