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An Introduction to Transport Phenomena In Materials Engineering 2nd edition

An Introduction to Transport Phenomena In Materials Engineering 2nd edition

By  David Gaskell

This classic text on fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transport has been brought up to date in this second edition. The author has added a chapter on ‘Boiling and Condensation’ that expands and rounds out the book’s comprehensive coverage on transport phenomena. These new topics are particularly important to current research in renewable energy resources involving technologies such as windmills and solar panels. An Introduction to Transport Phenomena In Materials Engineering 2nd edition provides you and other materials science and engineering students and professionals with a clear yet thorough introduction to these important concepts. It balances the explanation of the fundamentals governing fluid flow and the transport of heat and mass with common applications of these fundamentals to specific systems existing in materials engineering. You will benefit from:
• The use of familiar examples such as air and water to introduce the influences of properties and geometry on fluid flow.
• An organization with sections dealing separately with fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transport. This sequential structure allows the development of heat transport concepts to employ analogies of heat flow with fluid flow and the development of mass transport concepts to employ analogies with heat transport.
• Ample high-quality graphs and figures throughout.
• Key points presented in chapter summaries.
• End of chapter exercises and solutions to selected problems.
• An all new and improved comprehensive index.

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781606503553
  • Publisher: Momentum Press, LLC
  • Publication date: 8/31/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 686

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Table of Contents

List of Symbols xvii

1 Engineering Units and Pressure in Static Fluids 1

1.1 Origins of Engineering Units 1

1.2 Concept of Pressure 5

1.3 Measurement of Pressure 11

1.4 Pressure in Incompressible Fluids 15

1.5 Buoyancy 21

1.6 Summary 26

Problems 27

2 Momentum Transport and Laminar Flow of Newtonian Fluids 30

2.1 Introduction 30

2.2 Newton’s Lax of Viscosity 32

2.3 Conservation of Momentum in Steady-State Flow 36

2.4 Fluid Flow Between Two Flat Parallel Plates 40

2.5 Fluid Flow down in Inclined Plane 48

2.6 Fluid Flow in a Vertical Cylindrical Tube 53

2.7 Capillary Flowmeter 65

2.8 Fluid Flow in an Annulus 69

2.9 Mean Residence Time 76

2.10 Calculation of Viscosity from the Kinetic Theory of Gases 78

2.11 Viscosities of Liquid Metals 90

2.12 Summary 96

Problems 98

3 Equations of Continuity and Conservation of Momentum and Fluid Flow Past Submerged Objects 102

3.1 Introduction 102

3.2 Equation of Continuity 102

3.3 Conservation of Momentum 104

3.4 Navier-Stokes Equation for Fluids of Constant Density and Viscosity 108

3.5 Fluid Flow over a Horizontal Flat Plane 115

3.6 Approximate Integral Method in Obtaining Boundary Layer Thickness 117

3.7 Creeping Flow past a Sphere 125

3.8 Summary 132

Problems 133

4 Turbelent Flow 135

4.1 Introduction 135

4.2 Graphical Representation of Fluid Flow 139

4.3 Friction Factor and Turbulent Flow in Cylindrical Pipes 141

4.4 Flow Over a Flat Plate 153

4.5 Flow Past a Submerged Sphere 160

4.6 Flow Past a Submerged Cylinder 163

4.7 Flow Through Packed Beds 167

4.8 Fluidized Beds 175

4.9 Summary 180

Problems 181

5 Mechanical Energy Balance and Its Application to Fluid Flow 185

5.1 Introduction 185

5.2 Bernoulli’s Equation 185

5.3 Friction Loss, Ef 188

5.4 Influence of Bends, Fittings, and Changes in the Pipe Radius 190

5.5 Concept of Head 203

5.6 Fluid Flow in an Open Channel 205

5.7 Drainage from a Vessel 207

5.8 Emptying a Vessel by Discharge Through an Orifice 209

5.9 Drainage of a Vessel Using a Drainage Tube 213

5.10 Emptying a Vessel by Drainage Through a Drainage Tube 215

5.11 Bernoulli Equation for Flow of Compressible Fluids 219

5.12 Pilot Tube 221

5.13 Orifice Plate 225

5.14 Summary 228

Problems 229

6 Transport of Heat by Conduction 235

6.1 Introduction 235

6.2 Fourier’s Law and Newton’s Law 236

6.3 Conduction 238

6.4 Conduction in Heat Sources 256

6.5 Thermal Conductivity and the Kinetic Theory of Gases 267

6.6 General Heat Conduction Equation 274

6.7 Conduction of Heat at Steady State in Two Dimensions 278

6.8 Summary 289

Problems 290

7 Transport of Heat by Convection 295

7.1 Introduction 295

7.2 Heat Transfer by Forced Convection from a Horizontal Flat Plate at a Uniform Constant Temperature 295

7.3 Heat Transfer from a Horizontal Flat Plate with Uniform Heat Flux Along the Plate 315

7.4 Heat Transfer During Fluid Flow in Cylindrical Pipes 317

7.5 Energy Balance in Heat Transfer by Convection Between a Cylindrical Pipe and a Flowing Fluid 322

7.6 Heat Transfer by Forced Convection from Horizontal Cylinders 331

7.7 Heat Transfer by Forced Convection from a Sphere 334

7.8 General Energy Equation 335

7.9 Heat Transfer from a Vertical Plate by Natural Convection 346

7.10 Heat Transfer from Cylinders by Natural Convection 358

7.11 Summary 360

Problems 361

8 Transient Heat Flow 365

8.1 Introduction 365

8.2 Lumped Capacitance Method; Newtonian Cooling 365

8.3 Non-Newtonian Cooling in Semi-infinite Systems 373

8.4 Non-Newtonian Cooling in a One-Dimensional Finite Systems 382

8.5 Non-Newtonian Cooling in a Two-Dimensional Finite Systems 394

8.6 Solidification of Metal Castings 401

8.7 Summary 416

Problems 416

9 Heat Transport by Thermal Radiation 421

9.1 Introduction 421

9.2 Intensity and Emissive Power 423

9.3 Blackbody Radiation 427

9.4 Emissivity 431

9.5 Absorptivity, Reflectivity, and Transmissivity 436

9.6 Kirchhoff’s Law and the Hohlraum 437

9.7 Radiation Exchange Between Surfaces 439

9.8 Radiation Exchange Between Blackbodies 450

9.9 Radiation Exchange Between Diffuse-Gray Surfaces 453

9.10 Electric Analogy 458

9.11 Radiation Shields 460

9.12 Reradiating Surface 463

9.13 Heat Transfer from a Surface by Convection and Radiation 466

9.14 Summary 471

Problems 472

10 Mass Transport by Diffusion in the Solid State 476

10.1 Introduction 476

10.2 Atomic Diffusion as a Random-Walk Process 476

10.3 Fick’s First Law of Diffusion 480

10.4 One-Dimensional Non-Steady-State Diffusion in a Solid; Fick’s Second Law of Diffusion 483

10.5 Infinite Diffusion Couple 489

10.6 One-Dimensional Diffusion in a Semi-infinite System Involving a Change of Phase 491

10.7 Steady-State Diffusion Through a Composite Wall 498

10.8 Diffusion in Substitutional Solid Solutions 502

10.9 Darken’s Analysis 502

10.10 Self-Diffusion Coefficient 506

10.11 Measurement of the Interdifussion Coefficient: Boltzmann-Matano Analysis 510

10.12 Influence of Temperature on the Diffusion Coefficient 514

10.13 Summary 518

Problems 520

11 Mass Transport in Fluids 522

11.1 Introduction 522

11.2 Mass and Molar Fluxes in a Fluid 522

11.3 Equations of Diffusion with Convection in a Binary Mixture A-B 524

11.4 One-Dimensional Transport in a Binary Mixture of Ideal Gases 527

11.5 Equimolar Counterdiffusion 528

11.6 One-Dimensional Steady-State Diffusion of Gas A Through Stationary Gas B 529

11.7 Sublimation of a Sphere into a Stationary Gas 536

11.8 Film Model 538

11.9 Catalytic Surface Reactions 539

11.10 Diffusion and Chemical Reaction in Stagnant Film 542

11.11 Mass Transfer at Large Fluxes and Large Concentrations 547

11.12 Influence of Mass Transport on Heat Transfer in Stagnant Film 550

11.13 Diffusion into a Falling Film of Liquid 553

11.14 Diffusion and the Kinetic Theory of Gases 560

11.15 Mass Transfer Coefficient and Concentration Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate 569

11.16 Approximate Integral Method 573

11.17 Mass Transfer by Free Convection 583

11.18 Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer: Evaporate Cooling 586

11.19 Chemical Reaction and Mass Transfer: Mixed Control 589

11.20 Dissolution of Pure Metal A in Liquid B: Mixed Control 593

11.21 Summary 596

Problems 598

12 Condensation and Boiling 601

12.1 Introduction 601

12.2 Dimensionless Parameters in Boiling and Condensation 602

12.3 Modes of Boiling 603

12.4 Pool Boiling Correlations 606

12.5 Summary 612

Problems 612

Appendix A Elementary and Derived SI Units and Symbols 615

Appendix B Prefixes and Symbols for Multiples and Submultiples of SI Units 617

Appendix C Conversion from British and U.S. Units to SI Units 618

Appendix D Properties of Solid Metals 620

Appendix E Properties of Nonmetallic Solids 623

Appendix F Properties of Gases at 1 Atm Pressure 627

Appendix G Properties of Saturated Liquids 635

Appendix H Properties of Liquid Metals 639

Recommended Readings 642

Answers to Problems 643

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