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Ludwig’s Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants 4th Edition Volume 3

Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

By A. Kayode Coker PhD 

The fourth edition of Ludwig’s Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, Volume Three is a core reference for chemical, plant, and process engineers and provides an unrivalled reference on methods, process fundamentals, and supporting design data. New to this edition are expanded chapters on heat transfer plus additional chapters focused on the design of shell and tube heat exchangers, double pipe heat exchangers and air coolers. Heat tracer requirements for pipelines and heat loss from insulated pipelines are covered in this new edition, along with batch heating and cooking of process fluids, process integration, and industrial reactors. Ludwig Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants 4th Edition also looks at the troubleshooting of process equipment and corrosion and metallurgy.

  • Assists engineers in rapidly analyzing problems and finding effective design methods and mechanical specifications
  • Definitive guide to the selection and design of various equipment types, including heat exchanger sizing and compressor sizing, with established design codes
  • Batch heating and cooling of process fluids supported by Excel programs

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780750685245
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 1/2/2015
  • Edition number: 4

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Foreword xi
Preface to the Fourth Edition xiii
Biography xv
Acknowledgments xvii
15.Heat Transfer 1
Types of Heat Transfer Equipment
Terminology 2
Details of Exchange Equipment 6
Tube Vibration 68
Nozzle Connections to Shell and Heads 76
Types of Heat Exchange Operations 77
Temperature Difference: Two Fluid Transfer 81
Temperature for Fluid Properties
EvaluationeCaloric Temperature 111
Pressure Drop,DP 122
Heat Balance 131
Transfer Area 132
Fouling of Tube Surface 132
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for
Plain or Bare Tubes 169
Approximate Values for Overall Heat
Transfer Coefficients 174
Film Coefficients with Fluids Outside Tubes
Forced Convection 184
Design and Rating of Heat Exchangers 195
Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers 259
Spiral Heat Exchangers 269
Miscellaneous Special Application Heat
Transfer Equipment 277
Heat Loss for Bare Process Pipe 291
Air Cooled Heat Exchangers 303
Rating Method for Air Cooled Exchangers 325
Two-Phase Flow Patterns 328
Modes of Condensation 336
Boiling and Vaporization 371
Heat Transfer in Jacketed, Agitated
Vessels/Kettles 441
Falling Film Liquid Flow in Tubes 453
Batch Heating and Cooling of Fluids 454
Heat Exchanger Design with Computers 467
Maintenance of Heat Exchangers 471
General Symptoms in Shell and Tube Heat
Exchangers 472
Case Studies of Heat Exchangers Explosion
Hazards Incidents 473
References 477
Bibliography 486
16. Process Integration and Heat
Exchanger Networks 491
Introduction 491
Heat Recovery Problem Identification 499
Energy Targets 501
The Heat Recovery Pinch and Its
Significance 506
A Targeting Procedure: The Problem Table
Algorithm 509
The Grand Composite Curve 512
Placing Utilities Using the Grand Composite
Curve 512
Stream Matching at the Pinch 514
The Pinch Design Approach to Inventing a
Network 516
Heat Exchanger Network Design (HEN) 516
Design for Threshold Problems 526
Heat Exchanger Area Targets 531
HEN Simplification 544
Number of Shells Target 548
Implications for HEN Design 550
Capital Cost Targets 551
Energy Targeting 552
Supertargeting orDTminOptimization 553
Summary: New Heat Exchanger Network
Design 555
Targeting and Design for Constrained
Matches 555
Targeting by Linear Programming 557
Heat Engines and Heat Pumps for Optimum
Integration 558
Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer in Process
Integration 569
Total Site Analysis 571
Applications of Process Integration 584
Pitfalls in Process Integration 600
Conclusions 601
Industrial Applications, Case Studies and
Examples 605
Glossary of Terms 617
Summary and Heuristics 619
Nomenclature 620
References 620
17.Refrigeration Systems 623
Capacity of Refrigerator 624
The Carnot Refrigeration Cycle 624
Performance of a Carnot Refrigerator 626
Mechanical Refrigeration 627
Types of Refrigeration Systems 631
Terminology 631
Selection of a Refrigeration System for a
Given Temperature Level and Heat Load 631
System Pressure Drop 634
Absorption Refrigeration 644
Mechanical Refrigeration 654
Process Performance 656
System Performance Comparison 661
Hydrocarbon Refrigerants 667
Refrigeration Stages 669
Hydrocarbon Mixtures and Refrigerants 688
Generalized Comments Regarding
Refrigerants 705
System Design and Selection 708
Receiver 715
Economizers 715
Suction Gas Superheat 715
Cascade Systems 718
Compound Compression System 718
Comparison of Effect of System Cycle and
Expansion Valves on Required Horsepower 720
Cryogenics 720
Simulation of a Propane Refrigeration
Loop 722
Using Hysys Simulation Software Package 722
Glossary of Terms 724
Nomenclature 725
References 726
Bibliography 726
18.Compression Equipment
(Including Fans) 729
General Application Guide 729
Specification Guides 730
General Considerations for any Type
of Compressor Flow Conditions 732
Reciprocating Compression 733
Compressor Performance Characteristics 771
Solution of Compression Problems Using
Mollier Diagrams 796
Cylinder Unloading 806
Air Compressor Selection 813
Energy Flow 814
Constant-T System 817
Polytropic System 817
Constant S System 818
Centrifugal Compressors 818
Compressor Equations in SI Units 868
Multicomponent Gas Streams 874
Treatment of Compressor Fluids 875
Centrifugal Compressor Performance
in Process System 876
Expansion Turbines 890
Axial Compressor 891
Liquid Ring Compressors 895
Rotary Two-Impeller (Lobe) Blowers and
Vacuum Pumps 897
Rotary Axial Screw Blower and Vacuum
Pumps 901
Rotary Sliding Vane Compressor 905
Oil-Flooded Screw Compressors 907
Integrally Geared Compressors 909
Other Process-Related Compressors 912
Advances in Compressor Technology 913
Troubleshooting of Centrifugal and
Reciprocating Compressors 913
Fans 921
Blowers and Exhausters 968
Nomenclature 973
Greek Symbols 975
Subscripts 975
References 975
Bibliography 978
19.Reciprocating Compression Surge
Drums 979
Pulsation Dampener or Surge Drum 979
Common Design Terminology 980
Applications 983
Internal Details 990
Design MethodeSurge Drums
(Nonacoustic) 990
Single-Compression Cylinder 991
Parallel Multicylinder Arrangement Using
Common Surge Drum 992
Pipe Sizes for Surge Drum Systems 992
Frequency of Pulsations 996
Compressor Suction and Discharge Drums 997
viii Contents
Design MethodeModified NACA
Method for the Design of Suction and
Discharge Drums 1006
Pipe Resonance 1009
Mechanical Considerations: Drums/Bottles
and Piping 1010
Nomenclature 1010
Greek 1013
Subscripts 1013
References 1013
Bibliography 1014
20.Mechanical Drivers 1015
Electric Motors 1015
Mechanical Drive Steam Turbines 1065
Gas and Gas-Diesel Engines 1084
Combustion Gas Turbine 1086
Nomenclature 1091
References 1091
Bibliography 1093
21.Industrial and Laboratory Reactors e
Chemical Reaction Hazards and
Process Integration of Reactors 1095
Introduction 1095
Batch Isothermal Perfectly Stirred Reactor 1096
Semi-batch Reactors 1097
Continuous Flow Isothermal Perfectly
Stirred Tank Reactor 1099
Continuous Isothermal Plug Flow (Tubular)
Reactor 1100
Continuous Multiphase Reactors 1103
Fluidized Bed System 1106
Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Unit 1107
Deep Catalytic Cracking Unit 1110
Bubble Column Reactor 1114
Agitator Types for Different Reaction
Systems 1117
Catalysts and Catalytic Processes 1122
Determining Laboratory Reactors 1123
Recirculating Reactors 1131
Guidelines for Selecting Batch Processes 1132
Heat Transfer in Reactors 1134
Chemical Reaction Hazardous Incidents 1135
Chemical Reactivity Worksheet (CRW) 1141
Protective Measures for Runaway
Reactions 1141
Safety in Emergency Relief Systems 1141
Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) 1150
Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) 1152
Hazard Analysis (HAZAN) 1155
Fault Tree Analysis 1156
Key Findings by US Chemical Safety
and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) 1157
Reactive System Screening Tool (RSST) 1158
Energy Balances on Batch Reactors 1161
ThefFactor Accounting for the Heat
Capacities of the Bomb Calorimeter 1162
Adiabatic Operation of a Batch Reactor 1163
Relief Valve Sizing Calculations 1167
Vent Sizing Equations 1174
Discharge System 1175
Hazardous Pyrophoric Reaction 1191
Heat-Integrated Reactors 1192
Appropriate Placement of Reactors 1193
Reactor Design to Improve Heat
Integration 1194
Glossary 1198
References 1207
Useful Web Addresses 1208
22. MetallurgyeCorrosion 1209
Introduction 1209
Material Selection 1210
Embrittlement 1210
Environmental Cracking 1211
Creep and Creep Rupture Life 1218
Martensitic Stainless Steels in Refining
and Petroleum Production 1219
Corrosion 1222
References 1241

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