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Nanostructured Energy Devices Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics

Nanostructured Energy Devices Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics

By Juan Bisquert

Due to the pressing needs of society, low cost materials for energy devices have experienced an outstanding development in recent times. In this highly multidisciplinary area, chemistry, material science, physics, and electrochemistry meet to develop new materials and devices that perform required energy conversion and storage processes with high efficiency, adequate capabilities for required applications, and low production cost. Nanostructured Energy Devices Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics introduces the main physicochemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices. It includes coverage of the physical principles that control energy devices made of nanostructured and bulk materials, with the main attention focused on solution processed thin film technologies.

The book analyzes the fundamental concepts, main properties, and key applications of energy devices that are made using nanostructured materials and innovative thin film low cost technologies. This includes hybrid and organic solar cells, electrochemical batteries, diodes, LEDs and OLEDs, transistors, and the direct conversion of solar radiation to chemical fuels. It decodes rigorous formulation of thermodynamic concepts to establish energy diagrams, and explains also the fundamental kinetic models that determine the flow of electrons and ions in the device. The author lays out the main properties of semiconductors and their junctions for applications in solar cell and solar fuel devices. He emphasizes a unified view of the device operation principles that covers well-known examples but also enables you to discuss original research topics on a solid ground.

Although a challenging field of science and technology, energy devices such as solar cells and batteries have the potential to impact the creation of a carbon-free energy economy. However, the field draws scientists from a broad set of backgrounds, united towards common goals. This text presents the main concepts that apply to several types of devices, from a very basic level so that you can gain insight into the general view of principles of operation of the energy devices. It pulls together the views and terminologies used by several communities to create better communication and increased collaboration among them.

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781439836026
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 11/11/2014
  • Pages: 352

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Table of Contents

Introduction to Energy Devices

Electrostatic and Thermodynamic Potentials of Electrons in Materials
Electrostatic Potential
Energies of Free Electrons and Holes
Potential Energy of the Electrons in the Semiconductor
The Vacuum Level
The Fermi Level and the Work Function
The Chemical Potential of Electrons
Potential Step of a Dipole Layer or a Double Layer
Origin of Surface Dipoles
The Volta Potential
Equalization of Fermi Levels of Two Electronic Conductors in Contact
Equilibration of Metal Junctions and the Contact Potential Difference
Equilibrium across the Semiconductor Junction
General References

Voltage, Capacitors, and Batteries
The Voltage in the Device
Anode and Cathode
Applied Voltage and Potential Difference
The Capacitor
Measurement of the Capacitance
Energy Storage in the Capacitor
Electrochemical Systems: Structure of the Metal/Solution Interface
Electrode Potential and Reference Electrodes
Redox Potential in Electrochemical Cells
Electrochemical and Physical Scales of Electron Energy in Material Systems
Changes of Electrolyte Levels with pH
Principles of Electrochemical Batteries
Capacity and Energy Content
Practical Electrochemical Batteries
Li–Ion Battery
General references

Work Functions and Injection Barriers
Injection to Vacuum in Thermionic Emission
Richardson—Dushman Equation
Kelvin Probe Method
Photoelectron Emission Spectroscopy
Injection Barriers
Pinning of the Fermi Level and Charge Neutrality Level
General References

Thermal Distribution of Electrons, Holes, and Ions in Solids
Equilibration of the Electrochemical Potential of Electrons
Configurational Entropy of Weakly Interacting Particles
Equilibrium Occupancy of Conduction Band and Valence Band States
Equilibrium Fermi Level and the Carrier Number in Semiconductors
Transparent Conducting Oxides
Hot Electrons
The Rectifier at Forward and Reverse Voltage
Semiconductor Devices as Thermal Machines that Realize Useful Work
Cell Potential in the Lithium Ion Battery
Insertion of Ions: The Lattice Gas Model
General References

Interfacial Kinetics and Hopping Transitions
Detailed Balance Principle
Form of the Transition Rates
Kinetics of Localized States: Shockley–Read–Hall Recombination Model
Reorganization Effects in Charge Transfer: the Marcus Model
Polaron Hopping
Rate of Electrode Reaction: Butler–Volmer Equation
Electron Transfer at Metal–Semiconductor Contact
Electron Transfer at Semiconductor/Electrolyte Interface
General References

The Chemical Capacitance
Carrier Accumulation and Energy Storage in the Chemical Capacitance
Localized Electronic States in Disordered Materials and Surface States
Chemical Capacitance of a Single State
Chemical Capacitance of a Broad DOS
Filling a DOS with Carriers—The Voltage and the Conductivity
Chemical Capacitance of Li Intercalation Materials
Chemical Capacitance of Graphene
General References

The Density of States in Disordered Inorganic and Organic Conductors
Capacitive and Reactive Current in Cyclic Voltammetry
Kinetic Effects in CV Response
The Exponential DOS in Amorphous Semiconductors
The Exponential DOS in Nanocrystalline Metal Oxides
Basic Properties of Organic Layers
The Gaussian DOS
General References

Planar and Nanostructured Semiconductor Junctions
Structure of the Schottky Barrier at a Metal/Semiconductor Contact
Changes of the Schottky Barrier by the Applied Voltage
Properties of the Planar Depletion Layer
Mott–Schottky Plots
Capacitance Response of Defect Levels and Surface States
Semiconductor Electrodes and the Flatb and Potential
Changes of Redox Level and Band Unpinning
Inversion and Accumulation Layer
Effect of Voltage on Highly Doped Nanocrystalline Semiconductors
Homogeneous Carrier Accumulation in Low-Doped Nanocrystalline Semiconductors
General References

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