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Wastewater Treatment Concepts and Practices

Wastewater Treatment Concepts and Practices

By Francis Hopcroft

This book provides a concise presentation of the fundamental elements of wastewater treatment process design. It shows the reader where various authors and authorities differ in their interpretation of the fundamentals and offers multiple tables of data from which to select appropriate design parameters. This book is intended to be a process design reference book, not a detailed design manual or a textbook suitable for classroom use.

Wastewater Treatment Concepts and Practices will cover the chemistry and biology of wastewater treatment, as well as the more common techniques for treating wastewater to a water quality standard suitable for discharge. The treatment of wastewater, as distinguished from the treatment of potable water, is discussed in sufficient detail to allow an upper-level or graduate college student to quickly find a clear explanation of concepts embodied in the study of wastewater treatment. The intent is to provide a comprehensive reference manual that students can turn to for an understanding of concepts involved in specific research or design projects without the need to search multiple sources for each problem or issue that arises. In the first section a review of the key points of chemistry necessary for effective wastewater treatment are presented and discussed. A fundamental understanding of chemistry is an important part of understanding how wastewater treatment works. This is not a subject commonly favored by civil and environmental engineers. Fortunately, it is not necessary to be a chemist, or even particularly competent in the subject, overall, in order to be effective at designing suitable wastewater treatment processes. It is the intent of this volume to address the process of wastewater treatment; not the mechanics of the machinery and reactors used to do the work. No amount of machinery and reactor vessels will ever treat wastewater effectively unless the process of using the equipment is properly developed first and the equipment is properly utilized afterward.

KEY WORDS
environmental engineering, process design, reference manual, wastewater treatment

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781606504864
  • Publisher: Momentum Press, LLC
  • Publication date: 10/15/2014
  • Pages: 212

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Contents

List of Figures xi
List of Tables xiii
Foreword xv
Acknowledgments xvii
Preface xix
1 Chemistry Considerations 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Elements, Compounds, and Radicals 1
1.3 Reactive Characteristics of Atoms 3
1.4 Molecules 6
1.5 Moles and Normality 6
1.6 Properties of Radicals 7
1.7 Ions 8
1.8 Inorganic Chemicals 8
1.9 Units of Measure 8
1.10 Milliequivalents 12
1.11 Reaction Rates or “Reaction Kinetics” 15
1.12 Reactions Common to Wastewater Treatment 20
1.13 Coagulation and Flocculation 24
1.14 Hardness of Water 26
1.15 Chemical Oxygen Demand 26
1.16 Total Organic Carbon 27
1.17 Fats, Oil, and Grease
1.18 Material Balance Calculations 29
1.19 Emerging Chemicals of Concern 31
2 Biology Considerations 35
2.1 Introduction 35
2.2 Bacteria 35
2.3 Viruses 37
2.4 Algae 37
2.5 Fungi 40
2.6 Protozoans 40
2.7 Microscopic Multicellular Organisms 40
2.8 Pathogens 41
2.9 Indicator Organisms 41
2.10 Biological Oxygen Demand 42
2.11 BOD Formulas of Concern 43
2.12 Biological Decay Rate—k 43
2.13 Nitrogenous BOD 48
2.14 Temperature Effects on k-rate 49
2.15 Biological Growth Curve Kinetics 50
2.16 Dissolved Oxygen Concepts, Measurement,
and Relevance 51
2.17  Biological Nitrification and Denitrification 52
3 Wastewater Treatment Processes 55
3.1 Introduction 55
3.2 Basic Design Parameters 56
3.3 Preliminary Treatment Units 61
3.4 Primary Treatment Units 73
3.5 Secondary Treatment 79
3.6 Sludge Management 120
3.7 Tertiary Treatment Units 129
3.8 Details of Disinfection of Wastewater 131
4 Sedimentation Fundamentals 137
4.1 Introduction 137
4.2 Discrete Particle Sedimentation
4.3 Flocculant Particle Sedimentation 138
4.4 Weirs 138
4.5   Clarifier Design 139
4.6   Flocculator Clarifiers 143
4.7   Design of Discrete Particle Clarifiers 143
4.8 Design of Flocculant Particle Clarifiers 150
4.9 Hindered Settling 153
4.10  Design of Upflow Clarifiers 154
5 Subsurface Wastewater Disposal 157
5.1 Introduction 157
5.2 Conventional Subsurface Disposal Systems 157
5.3 Alternative Disposal Field Designs 167
6 Water Reuse 175
6.1 Introduction 175
6.2   Specific Reuse Options
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